Police departments around the U.S. are increasingly making the OD reversal drug, naloxone, available to their officers. This intervention has the potential to greatly improve emergency response after an OD. The proportion of precincts mandating that officers carry naloxone remains small, however, and barriers remain that make adoption of these first-responder programs problematic. Lawsuits from police unions contesting naloxone- related mandates and occupational safety concerns, including the potential for needle stick injuries (HIV/HCV risk) and incidental contact with fentanyl-class substances, constitute barriers, as do stigma and concerns about legal jeopardy. The study team proposes to equip police with best-practices for minimizing workplace harms related to encounters with PWUO/PWID and the legal and practical knowledge to respond confidently to an OD without fear of legal jeopardy as well as reduce health risks to PWUOs and PWIDs associated with law enforcement.
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